Editorial for A Tree Problem

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Author: Ninjaclasher

Let \(onPath[0][u]\) define whether node \(u\) is on the path from \(a\) to \(b\), and \(onPath[1][u]\) define whether node \(u\) is on the path from \(c\) to \(d\).

We can first run a depth-first-search (DFS) starting from node \(a\). For each child \(u\), we can check if node \(b\) is in \(u\)'s subtree (including \(u\)). If it is, this means that node \(u\) must be on the path from \(a\) to \(b\) (as there is only one path between any two nodes in a tree), and we can set \(onPath[0][u] = True\). We can then push this information onto \(u\)'s parent (marking it as \(True\) as well).

We can use the same approach for the path from node \(c\) to \(d\).

Then, we can check which nodes are on both paths by checking if both \(onPath[0][i] = True\) and \(onPath[1][i] = True\) for all \(i\ (1 \le i \le N)\).

Time Complexity: \(\mathcal{O}(N)\)


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